DCS - Ka-50 Black Shark
|| CD-R Boxed
"DCS: Black Shark" is a
PC game of the Russian Ka-50 attack helicopter and is the first title in
a new Eagle Dynamics and The Fighter Collection simulation series: "Digital
Combat Simulator" (DCS). Following Eagle Dynamics' tradition of
excellence, "DCS: Black Shark" will bring an even more realistic
simulation experience than its predecessor "Flaming Cliffs". "DCS: Black
Shark" will offer an unprecedented level of realism in regards to flight
dynamics, instruments modeling, avionics systems, and weapon systems.
The artificial Intelligence of ground vehicles and helicopters has been
improved dramatically as well as weapon modeling. A new Mission Editor
includes a powerful electronic mapping system that allows user to easily
create missions and campaigns. A new campaign system allows the front
line of the battlefield to move back and fourth according to your
mission success or failure. Due to the increased flexibility of the DCS
system, additional fixed-wing aircraft and helicopter add-ons will
The Ka-50 flight and systems model has been
implemented using the following methodologies.
Helicopter Dynamics Modeling
Rigid body dynamics equations have been
used to calculate the helicopter’s flight trajectory. In essence, this
means that all external forces and force momentums are used to calculate
a body’s position and rotation in 3-D space.
Forces and moments
The Ka-50 airframe aerodynamic properties are derived from its
sub-element parameters: fuselage, wings, tail, and landing gear. Each of
these has its own position and orientation within the airframe
local-coordinate system and each has their own aerodynamic
characteristics. Each sub-element is calculated by independent lift-drag
coefficients diagrams, damage degree influencing the lift properties,
and center of gravity (CG) position and inertial characteristics.
Aerodynamic forces acting on each sub-element of the airframe are
calculated separately in their own coordinate system taking into account
local airspeed of the sub-element.
Contacts with the ground and external objects are modeled based on rigid
contact points system.
Landing gear is modeled as separate gear
arms, each consisting of a wheel and an asymmetric shock absorber. The
nose wheel is self-orienting, based on acting external forces. Such a
model allows for modeling of realistic behavior including the
development of shimmy effects at high speeds. Retracting and lowering
the landing gear can lead to CG repositioning. When modeling landing
gear operations their kinematic properties, external and hydraulic
forces are all taken into account. The result is very realistic behavior
in all conditions.
Ka-50 damages in the game
The damage model is based on aerodynamic
and rigid contact forces where applicable. Damages to airframe
components, landing gear, wheels, sensors and devices are all taken into
account. Any damage will affect the helicopter’s physical and functional
properties and reposition the CG.
The Ka-50 Black Shark’s rotor model is
revolutionary among helicopter simulators. It is based on a joint model
of each blade with its own complex motion relative to rotor axis and
flapping (horizontal) and hunting (vertical) hinges. Each blade is
separated into multiple segments, each having its own air velocity
vector based on its orientation, twist, and induced velocity at current
rotor section. Induced velocity is calculated by solving the equations
based on simultaneously application of motion quantity theorem and blade
element method. All this produces natural helicopter dynamics such as
conical rotor inclination in forward flight (oscillations in hover with
fixed stick, cyclic stick input increasing accordingly to the airspeed),
power excess after transition from hover to forward flight, ground
effect (over inclined surface or close to ground objects), “vortex ring”
phenomena, airflow stall from the blades, blades intersection (collision).
In the case of individual blade damage, corresponding dynamics are
naturally modeled as part of overall rotor model.
The Ka-50 powerplant consists of a gearbox
with free-wheel clutches, two TV3-117VMA turbo-shaft engines with
electronic engine governors, an auxiliary power unit and turbo-gear.
Engines and power train
For the first time in flight simulation history, the engine model is
based on detailed physics model of turbo-shaft engine as a system of
separate components of the engine gas-dynamics system: engine inlet,
compressor, combustion chamber, high-pressure turbine and power-turbine
with engine exhaust.
The model corresponds to the real engine in all modes of operation in
terms of output power, acceleration, compressor RPM, exhaust gas
temperature (EGT) and fuel consumption, in relation to the ambient air
temperature and pressure. Operation of bleed air valves is modeled for
the compressor anti-stall system, engine’s deicing system and the dust
cyclone. By reducing the airflow through the engine, these devices
increase the EGT and lower the take-off power of the engine. Engine
components parameters degradation is implemented in the model within the
service life or in case of exceeded operation limitations of take-off
and emergency power modes or power loss with EGT over-limit.
Compressor choking caused by intake icing
is modeled so that it leads to power loss, EGT increase, compressor
stall and engine flame-out. Flame-out is modeled using air-fuel ratio
calculation in the combustion chamber. The engine control system, as in
real life, consists of turbo-compressor (gas-generator- GG) RPM governor,
power-turbine RPM governor, automatic engine start-up and acceleration
devices, electronic engine governor (EEG) that limits the max EGT and
monitors/limits the power-turbine RPM. Except for direct engine control,
the control system incorporates start-up cycle of the APU, main engines
and turbo-gear, engine and engine controls test equipment like engine
false start, engine vent (crank), EEG test, rotor (power-turbine) RPM
governor readjustment and many more.
The hydraulic system
The hydraulic system incorporates all of
the servo boosters, accumulators, tanks, and boost pumps. As in the real
system, it is subdivided into Main and Common systems, each having its
own lines, pumps and consumers. In the servo booster model, the
displacement of the output power rod as a function of the fluid pressure
(and selector valve position) is taken into account along with external
factors such as hinge moments, support reactions etc. The system
pressure is determined by the charge in the accumulators as a function
of the pumps delivery and loads consumption and also damage leaks.
Helicopter’s fuel system includes fuel
tanks, fuel lines, boost pumps and valves. Fuel usage leads to change in
the center of mass position within allowed operating limits. Fuel system
is fully controlled from the cockpit by the pilot.
Fuel System diagram
The electrical system includes:
The Ka-50 electrical power generation
system provides AC and DC power to the primary and emergency buses and
distribution assemblies. This power supply is used to run avionics
systems, internal and external lighting, hydraulic, fuel systems control
and monitoring, engines, and auxiliary power unit start up systems. When
on the ground, an external power cart can be used as an alternate power
source. In addition to onboard power generation capability, the Ka-50
also includes batteries that electrical power can be drawn from.
- Main alternating current (AC)
- Emergency alternating current (AC)
- Direct current (DC) distribution
- External electrical power sources
for alternating and direct current supply
The Alternating Current System
The primary electrical system is fed by alternating current (AC) 115/200
V, 400 Hz generators. This supply is further divided into left and right
systems on independent channels to provide system redundancy. Generator
operation is dependent upon the left and right engines being active as
each engine contains a gearbox that runs a generator. The left channel
systems can be powered by the right generator and the right channel
systems are powered by the left generator. In the event of both
generators becoming inoperative, a back-up, static DC to AC inverter can
take over power to the most important systems and direct current will
trigger the in-flight warning system.
The Direct Current System
Systems requiring direct current (DC) power are supplied at 27V by use
of AC to DC transformer-rectifiers. Transformer-rectifiers are active
while the generators are in operation. If one of the
transformer-rectifiers is switched off though, systems will be switched
to the operating transformer-rectifier. If both transformer-rectifiers
and/or generators are off-line, the most important avionics systems will
be switched to emergency DC power.
Damage to the electrical generation system is also manifested in the
visual damage model of the Ka-50. An event-oriented approach is
implemented such that a loss in electrical power to systems will have a
cascade effect. This specifically means that the loss of one electrical
system will have repercussions affecting linked elements of the
Ka-50 Avionics Systems Overview
Although a highly detailed flight manual
will be provided with DCS: Black Shark, the following provides you with
a small sampling of the avionics systems modeled in our simulation of
the Ka-50. Piloting, navigation, targeting and defensive systems and
included in this overview.
The Ka-50 cockpit instruments are generally
traditional electro-mechanical gauges that are mounted on the front dash
and side / back panels. These instruments are divided into three general
groups: flight control, engine control/monitoring and systems control.
Other cockpit interfaces include traditional switches, dials and
multiple-position switches. Additionally, the Ka-50 has multiple banks
of warnings lights and cockpit illumination controls.
Ka-50 cockpit overview
AMMS ABRIS display
Advanced Moving Map System AMMS (ABRIS)
The ABRIS panel is a multi-function display
that allows the pilot to perform the following tasks:
- Programming, editing and saving of
waypoints, runways, radio beacons, target locations and the ability
to study terrain along the flight route, etc.;
- Ability to alter flight plan during
- Real-time determination of
helicopter position coordinates by using of built in navigational
satellite system sensor (GPS/GLONASS); display of the helicopter
position on the electronic moving map display; ability to cycle map
scale; check cross-track error and the other necessary navigation
- Display of aeronautical information
and flight plan required for the navigation during all stages of a
- Reception of information from the
autonomous pressure altitude sensors and necessary processing of
pressure altitude for the needs of the built-in satellite navigation
- Reception and processing of
information from the other avionics systems such as the “Rubicon”
targeting-navigation system and data-link equipment.
- Indicating the position of wingmen
using data-link as well as targeting line of sight vector from
“Shkval” targeting system.
- Annotate moving map with text and
“Rubicon” Targeting-Navigation System
The targeting-navigation system is designed
to integrate combat, navigation and flight tasks by processing both
digital and analog information. “Rubicon” is integrated with the
“Shkval” targeting system, airborne information display system and
weapon control system.
Data entry panel of Rubicon
“Radian” Navigation System
“Radian” is a sub-system of “Rubicon” that
helps automate flight navigation. “Radian” can store information in its
memory such as coordinates for two airfields, six waypoints of a flight
plan, ten operative targets, and four reference points.
I-251 “Shkval” System
The “Shkval” system consists of a
television camera combined with a laser range-finder and laser
illumination designator to guide the anti-tank missile system.
The “Shkval” system can be ground-stabilizing and is capable of
auto-tracking a designated target. There are two Fields Of View (FOV)
levels: Wide FOV with a 6x magnification and narrow FOV with a 22x
magnification. FOV gimbal suspension limits are: ±35° in azimuth and
+15° to -80° in elevation.
The video picture is shown as a gray-scale image on the IT-23VM TV
The “Shkval” can be set to scan for targets automatically and the
angular rate of scan can be manually be set by the pilot while in the
To slew the “Shkval” camera, the pilot uses a small mini-stick on the
Targeting complex “Shkval”
The IT-23 video indicator of “Shkval”
“Ranet” Information Display System
The “Ranet” information display system is
designed for processing and displaying flight, navigation and targeting
information on the heads-up display and the IT-23 video indicator.
Head-up display (HUD) ILS-31
The head-up display (HUD) is modeled as a
collimator optical device with focus set to infinity. This allows the
pilot to look outside the cockpit through the HUD while still being able
to read the symbols displayed on it.
Flight, navigation and targeting information is displayed on the HUD
which is received from the “Ranet” information display system.
HUD and IT-23 with the “Ranet” information
of display system
Helmet-Mounted Sight (HMS)
The HMS system is designed to hand-off
targeting information to the “Shkval” system. The angular coordinates
from the HMS, as determined by the pilot’s line of sight, are
transmitting to the “Shkval” targeting system for cueing.
The field of view limits are ±60° in azimuth and from -20° to +45° in
OVN-1 Night Vision Goggles
Night vision goggles (NVG) are included to
allow the pilot to navigate in dark / low-light conditions.
Outside cockpit view through night vision
The autopilot system is integrated with the
targeting and navigation systems and it produces control input for
automatic flight system for deviation of the helicopter from the
assigned attitude and altitude.
Autopilot control panel
Inertial Navigation System
The Ts-061 inertial navigation system
includes a gyro-platform and three accelerometers, designed for the
determination of the flight direction and the attitude of the
helicopter. The system also measures accelerations to calculate inertial
speed and position of the helicopter.
Air Data System
The air data system is designed to receive
input from various instruments, process these inputs and then present
them to the pilot.
Doppler Navigation System
The doppler navigation system is used to
determine the speed and angle of drift of the helicopter.
The data-link system allows exchange of up
to 16 targets and reference points between helicopters. The automatic
exchange of ownship coordinates is updated between the four aircraft of
a flight. This data-link information is displayed on the ABRIS.
Data-link control panel
L-140 “Otklik” Laser Warning Receiver
The laser warning receiver detects combat
range-finders and laser designators. If the helicopter is lased, an
indication of the type of laser is provided and the location quadrant
that the laser is being detected from.
Laser warning indicator
The countermeasures dispensers are located
on the wing tips.
For the programming of countermeasure dispensers, the UV-26 control
panel is used. Depending on the type of threat, the pilot can set the
appropriate dispenser program for expending chaff and/or flares. The
pilot can determine the number of flares to dispense in the volley, the
time between each flare, and the time between volleys. Using the control
panel it is possible to select with dispenser to use (left or right) and
when to start or stop the dispensing program.
Original appearance of countermeasure
UV-26 dispensers control panel
UHF Radio R-800
The R-800 UHF radio allows the pilot to
communicate with the control tower and other aircraft. The R-800 is also
used to send and receive encrypted data link information.
R-800 panel (in center)
Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) ARK-22
The ADF provides navigation using NDB (non
directional beacon) or broadcasting radio stations. It can also monitor
ground radio stations in the MW band.
ADF panel (in center)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) Aircraft
The primary innovation regarding AI
aircraft in “Black Shark” is the inclusion of a new and improved Flight
Model (FM) system. In previous Eagle Dynamics products such as Lock On,
the AI-aircraft FM did not reach a high-level of realism. For example:
animations were sometimes used to supplement flight dynamics equations;
this would in turn lead to unrealistic flight behavior in certain
situations like high angles of attack and departures. This absence of
detailed angle of attack modeling and the influence of cross wind led to
problems when AI aircraft attempting to land in a cross-wind.
For “Black Shark”, the same Standard Flight
Model (SFM) will be used for AI-controlled aircraft that was used for
player-controlled aircraft in “Lock On”. This improved FM will provide
much more realistic AI flight performance. Only the Advanced Flight
Model (AFM) featured in the Su-25T of “Lock On: Flaming Cliffs” game (www.lockon.co.uk)
C-130 cross-wind landing
When using the SFM, the equations to derive aircraft motion take into
account the unique inertial and aerodynamic characteristics of the
aircraft. The engine model uses the factors of thrust and fuel-burn rate
to further determine aircraft speed and altitude. These calculations
allow the SFM to model realistic flight characteristics of aircraft
(acceleration, rate of climb, maximum altitude, maximum and minimum
speed, turn radius, instantaneous and sustained turn rates, range and
flight duration). When converting the “Black Shark” AI aircraft to the
SFM standard, it was necessary to modify more than 50 aircraft!
With this advancement in AI aircraft flight dynamics, it is now possible
for the AI to conduct more advanced flight maneuvers and combat tactics:
These improvements also lead to more
realistic combat between the player and AI aircraft.
- The AI can now initiate climbs and
descents at optimum airspeed by using automatic calculations
- Improvements to the level of
mechanical control input in relation to airspeed
- AI aircraft are now able to perform
cross-wind landings and takeoffs from runways and aircraft carriers
- AI aircraft now stay in formation
in a more realistic manner
- AI aircraft now use more realistic
means to jink and maneuver against threats
- Realistic speed limitations have
- AI aircraft now return to base in a
more realistic manner when low on fuel
- Maneuvering in within visual range
combat has been improved
- AI aircraft have better avoidance
skills when attached from behind
- AI aircraft have improved accuracy
when attacking with cannon and rockets
Ground Vehicles, Ships and Weapons
Ground vehicles, ships and weapons such as
bombs, rockets, missiles and cannons have been significantly improved in
“Black Shark”. Improvements include:
- The stable of active ground
vehicles available from the mission editor has been greatly
expanded. These new models include new vehicle types as well as
substantial improvements to existing vehicles from “Flaming Cliffs”.
The level or 3D object detail, textures and animations have been
radically improved in comparison with “Flaming Cliffs”.
- Each ground vehicle can now use
multiple types of weapons simultaneously. For example: a tank can
now engage other ground vehicles with its main gun while at the same
time engaging aircraft and infantry with heavy and light machine
guns. This results in a much more realistic engagement process for
- The ballistic algorithms for
cannons and guns have been radically improved to include full
physics modeling. Flight of such projectiles is now very realistic.
- Groups or ground vehicles now use
much more advanced algorithms to determine how the group will
distribute its fire power, alter its movement, and change its
formation to best react to a target/threat. This has led to much
more realistic ground battles in which units behave with
- The simulation algorithms of ground
vehicles, ships and weapons had been improved to provide a
significant system performance improvement. This allows users to
place many detailed units in a mission without a large system
- All vehicles now include several
Level Of Detail (LOD) and also help assist in system performance.
- Leg infantry units are now
AI Helicopters Flight Model
The flight dynamic model of AI helicopters
(hereinafter referred to as the “AI model”) in “DCS : Black Shark” is a
simplified version of the “advanced model”, used for human-controlled
helicopters. However, it is still based on the same equations of
calculating realistic motion. The standard model provides realistic
trajectories of motion and effects of control inputs during maneuvers.
The primary feature of AI model is an approximation of forces that are
applied to the rigid body of a helicopter. With the AI model,
aerodynamics forces on the chassis and forces from the rotors are
calculated by using the same algorithms as in the advanced model with
some simplifications to reduce unnecessary calculations. For example:
the standard model rotor model calculates the inductive speed and the
thrust in same manner as the advanced model but with a reduced number of
calculated segments taken into account. The flap motion of blades and
lift vector of the rotor are calculated using current flight parameters
and control inputs.
The aerodynamic portion of the AI model includes a dynamic calculation
of the fuselage as a source of aerodynamic drag and as an empennage that
provides the flight stability. Every AI helicopter in the DCS series has
its own unique set of empennages and fuselage air flow properties.
The AI model includes a power plant that is
composed of engine(s) and a system that automatically maintains constant
engine RPM. A fuel governor controls the engine power in relation to
collective input and the difference between most efficient and
current-setting rotor rpm. Maximum available power at any given air
pressure, altitude and temperature is calculated by stored tables
derived from the advanced engine model or from available manufacturers’
data. The engine dynamic properties are modeled with engine power lag.
The gas generator rotor RPM is set according to actual engine power.
AI Helicopter AH-64A in action
As in the advanced model, the AI helicopters can use tricycle landing
gear that is composed of wheels, a compression strut and a
nonsymmetrical shock absorber.
The modeling of a unique fuselage and empennages that comprise an AI
helicopter provide realistic flight properties when a helicopter is
damaged. This is done by removing destroyed aircraft elements from the
aerodynamic calculations. Tail rotor, stub-wings, parts of the main
rotor (rotors), etc can be lost.
Even though controlled by the computer, the AI must still control the
helicopter by inputs to the rudder pedals, cyclic and collective. The AI
control algorithms take into account the flight limitations for each
type of helicopter.
Black Shark World
“DCS: Black Shark” operations will be based
in the western Caucus region and will include portions of Russia,
Georgia and a small part of Turkey. With Russia, special attention is
paid to the Krasnodarskiy, Karachayrvo-Cherkesiya, Kabardino-Balkariya
and Stavropol’skey regions. Some of this area will be recognizable from
“Flaming Cliffs”, but “DCS: Black Shark” has added a considerable new
amount of terrain, particularly much of Georgia. The “DCS: Black Shark”
map is approximately 330,000 sq. km of ground and sea area.
Blue dots represent new airbases
The map includes a wide array of topography that includes plains,
agriculture fields, forests, hills, mountains, streams, rivers, lakes
The detail of the terrain height map has been increased in “DCS: Black
Shark” in order to provide a more realistic height field to fly over in
a helicopter at low altitude. Given the nature of attack helicopter
operations, having a detailed height map was a must-have. Large portions
of the “DCS: Black Shark” terrain height elevation matrix contain twice
the number of triangles that were used to create the “Flaming Cliffs”
In addition to a finer terrain height mesh,
we have also increased the resolution of the terrain textures for
population centers, agricultural fields, and airbases. The other texture
areas have been modified to more accurately conform to the terrain
height matrix. The below images compare the same region in “Flaming
Cliffs” and “DCS: Black Shark”. The combination of the more detailed
height map and the high-resolution ground textures provide for a much
more detailed terrain environment to fly and fight over.
Two examples of increased terrain mesh detail. To the left is the
area between Tuapse and Sochi and to the right is an example of the
The terrain elevation matrix is particularly detailed in the
Mineralnye Vody area of the map. The left image above shows the
elevation matrix from the same height as the previous images. The
right image above shows the center of the area but at twice the
scale (zoomed in). Note that the mesh is still looking very detailed.
Examples of normal terrain mesh and textures on left and improved
terrain mesh and improved textures on the right
With the expanded terrain, we have also added numerous towns, cities,
roads, rail lines, power lines, forests, rivers, streams and many other
features to populate the world. In regards to both the new and existing
terrain from “Flaming Cliffs”, we have increased the detail and object /
road density. Many of the buildings will also receive a face-lift with
To support air operations in the new areas, “DCS: Black Shark” has added
six new airfields, two in Russian and four in Georgia. These new air
bases are represented by the light-blue dots in the image at the
beginning of this section.
To give the small streams a more natural look, “DCS: Black Shark” will
include animation to the water texture. The below images compare streams
in “Flaming Cliffs” and “DCS: Black Shark”.
Static example of river on at the top and animated river below
Radio Navigation and Physics Modeling
DCS: Black Shark features an authentic
model of radio navigation equipment. The DCS world includes various
radio navigation aids available in the theater of operations modeled in
the simulation, including:
Although not used by the Ka-50, the
simulation code supports various other types of radio navaids for future
flyable aircraft, theatres of operation and campaign scenarios,
- Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)
- Airfield Outer Locator NDB
- Airfield Inner Locator NDB
- NDB Marker
- Broadcasting station
- ILS Marker
The DCS Ka-50 model includes the following radio equipment:
- ARK-22 Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)
- Beacon ID Receiver
- R-800L1 UHF radio
- R-828 UHF radio
- SPU-9 intercom
- ABRIS Advanced Moving Map System (AMMS)
In general, airfields are equipped
with outer and inner NDB locator beacons for each end of every
runway at 4000 m. and 1300 m. respectively. Some airfields are
configured differently according to local conditions, such as
sea or mountain proximity. Each beacon in the simulation is
assigned its realistic frequency in the 150-1750 kHz range and
Morse code ID. Additionally, each NDB locator beacon includes a
co-located marker beacon operating at 75 mHz. The map also
includes realistically placed independent NDBs with individual
frequencies and IDs.
Outer Locator NDB
|To conduct radio navigation,
the Ka-50 pilot can use the ARK-22 ADF and the ABRIS AMMS.
The ARK-22 ADF controls the Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)
needle on the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI), pointing it
in the direction of the transmitting signal. Using the ADF, the
pilot can select one of eight preset channels, each of which
stores two radio frequencies. Upon reaching the transmitter of
the currently selected frequency, the ADF automatically begins
homing on the second and vice versa. Alternatively, the pilot
can manually select which of the two frequencies on the selected
channel to home on. For example, the first frequency in a given
ADF channel may be set to home on the airfield outer locator
beacon and the second on the inner locator beacon, etc. The
pilot can verify selection of the correct beacon by configuring
the ADF to provide an audio transmission of the beacon’s ID.
While in real life the frequencies for each ADF channel are set
by ground personnel, the DCS player can edit these in the ADF
configuration files outside the simulation.
The ARK-22 ADF can also be slaved
to the R-800L1 UHF radio. In this case, the RMI needle on the
HSI is directed toward the transmitter on the frequency
currently selected for the R-800L1 radio. For example, the
flight leader can maintain bearing to his wingman when the
wingman is transmitting a radio call. The R-800L1 radio can also
be used to tune the ADF to any broadcasting station, such as the
commercial “Radio Mayak” in Maykop city. The DCS player can load
audio files into specially assigned folders to be played when he
tunes the radio to the frequency and modulation setting of the
Using the ABRIS AMMS, the pilot can select any radio station in
the database to guide to or obtain more information on,
including its code and ID. Using the ABRIS Options page, the
player can assign the ABRIS RMI 1 and/or 2 needles on the ARC
and HSI pages to display the radio beacon azimuth.
The SPU-9 intercom system provides audio and microphone
transmission for the pilot. It can be set to UHF1 (R-828), UHF2
(R-800L1), KV (ADF and Marker Beacon), and NOP (ground link).
The R-828 radio is used for communication with combat ground
units and is not part of the navigation equipment.
DCS: Black Shark features an expanded ground personnel and airfield
tower radio communications menu. Having provided power to and properly
configured the radios, the player can communicate with the ground crew
to request payload changes, fuel loads, sighting devices (HMS or NVG),
electric power to the aircraft, etc. The player can communicate with the
tower to request permission for engine start, taxi, test hover, etc.
The DCS radio physics model
calculates every transmission in real time and determines the
local signal strength according to numerous variables, including
time of day (ionosphere effect), surface type (rough terrain,
paved surface, water, etc.), distance to transmitter,
transmitter power, etc. Because radio traffic is carried “live,”
reception can be interrupted at any point by either natural or
artificial interference, such as terrain topology or radio
configuration. For example, if the player changes his radio
frequency, reception will cease, but can resume at its actual
point upon reconfiguring the radio back to the transmitter’s
frequency. AI units react to radio calls only if transmission is
The frequency configuration files allow the DCS player to configure the
various frequencies used by in-game units, including own flight, tower,
The Ka-50 hydraulic system is used to
provide hydraulic power to various helicopter systems. This consists of
- The main hydraulic system supplies
the flight control servo actuators for pitch, bank, yaw and
collective. In case of a common system failure, it also ensures
emergency landing gear extension.
- The common system supplies the
landing gear extend/retract system, the main wheels brakes and
cannon steering. In case of a main system failure, it supplies the
flight control servo actuators.
Each system consists of a hydraulic
pump, a hydraulic fluid tank, filters, valves, pipes and control
elements. The pressure source for both systems is provided by variable
displacement pumps. The main system’s pump is mounted on the left
accessory gearbox of the main gearbox, and it operates when the rotors
are driven by the engines and also when in autorotation. The common
|This product was added to our catalog on Tuesday 31 March, 2009.